Topic Sugestion Bleeding Kansas and John Brown.

Im posting this here cause the link to the email seems to not be working. Also its just interesting and funny. I went to school in kansas and I minored in history and took a whole 400 level course on JB so I know the story well and its fucking nuts. It'd fit well with the dollop cause no kids killed, bunch of crazy shit, famous history people involved, no rapes, and still germaine to race issues.

First JB was born may 9th 1800 to Owen and Ruth brown in Ohio. One of 8 kids, his father was a tanner (gross) and passed the trade to JB but JB didn't want to be a tanner (no shit) he wanted to be a preacher. Interesting side note Owen also had Jesse R Grant as an apprentice, the fater of Ulysses S Grant.

At 16 brown moved to Mass. to study at Morris Academy and become a congregational minister (this is a pretty middle of the road church for the time not too extreme). He soon ran out of money had "swelling of the eyes" so he dropped out and went back to Ohio.

There he opened a successful tannery on the outskirts of Hudson. At 20 he married Dianthe Lusk and had 7 kids with her (eventually).

In 1825 he moved the family to Pennsylvania, bought 200 acres (on loan) and started a new tannery. It was very prosperous and soon had 15 employees. He expanded his business by raising cattle and selling the leather he tanned. In this period he helped establish a school and a post office and this land is now a national historical site.

In 1831 one of his sons died. Then he fell ill and his business suffered leaving him in great debt.

In 1832 his newborn son died and right after so did his wife.

A year latter he married 16 year old Mary Ann Day and eventually had 13 kids with her.

In 1836 he moved back to Ohio borrowed money and started a new tannery. Then the market crashed in 1839 and he lost everything. " Im posting this here cause the link to the email seems to not be working. Also its just interesting and funny. I went to school in kansas and I minored in history and took a whole 400 level course on JB so I know the story well and its fucking nuts.

First JB was born may 9th 1800 to Owen and Ruth brown in Ohio. One of 8 kids, his father was a tanner (gross) and passed the trade to JB but JB didn't want to be a tanner (no shit) he wanted to be a preacher. Interesting side note Owen also had Jesse R Grant as an apprentice, the fater of Ulysses S Grant.

At 16 brown moved to Mass. to study at Morris Academy and become a congregational minister (this is a pretty middle of the road church for the time not too extreme). He soon ran out of money had "swelling of the eyes" so he dropped out and went back to Ohio.

There he opened a successful tannery on the outskirts of Hudson. At 20 he married Dianthe Lusk and had 7 kids with her (eventually).

In 1825 he moved the family to Pennsylvania, bought 200 acres (on loan) and started a new tannery. It was very prosperous and soon had 15 employees. He expanded his business by raising cattle and selling the leather he tanned. In this period he helped establish a school and a post office and this land is now a national historical site.

In 1831 one of his sons died. Then he fell ill and his business suffered leaving him in great debt.

In 1832 his newborn son died and right after so did his wife.

A year latter he married 16 year old Mary Ann Day and eventually had 13 kids with her.

In 1836 he moved back to Ohio borrowed money and started a new tannery. Then the market crashed in 1839 and Im posting this here cause the link to the email seems to not be working. Also its just interesting and funny. I went to school in kansas and I minored in history and took a whole 400 level course on JB so I know the story well and its fucking nuts.

First JB was born may 9th 1800 to Owen and Ruth brown in Ohio. One of 8 kids, his father was a tanner (gross) and passed the trade to JB but JB didn't want to be a tanner (no shit) he wanted to be a preacher. Interesting side note Owen also had Jesse R Grant as an apprentice, the fater of Ulysses S Grant.

At 16 brown moved to Mass. to study at Morris Academy and become a congregational minister (this is a pretty middle of the road church for the time not too extreme). He soon ran out of money had "swelling of the eyes" so he dropped out and went back to Ohio.

There he opened a successful tannery on the outskirts of Hudson. At 20 he married Dianthe Lusk and had 7 kids with her (eventually).

In 1825 he moved the family to Pennsylvania, bought 200 acres (on loan) and started a new tannery. It was very prosperous and soon had 15 employees. He expanded his business by raising cattle and selling the leather he tanned. In this period he helped establish a school and a post office and this land is now a national historical site.

In 1831 one of his sons died. Then he fell ill and his business suffered leaving him in great debt.

In 1832 his newborn son died and right after so did his wife.

A year latter he married 16 year old Mary Ann Day and eventually had 13 kids with her.

In 1836 he moved back to Ohio borrowed money and started a new tannery. Then the market crashed in 1839 and he lost everything. He even spent time in jail trying to occupy his old land which was now owned by someone else

In massive debt he tried and failed at many different jobs and settled on sheep breeding.

In 1837 at a sermon in a church he didn't normally attend about murdered abolitionist Elijah P Lovejoy, he stood up interrupting the preacher and yelled:

"Here, before God, in the presence of these witnesses, from this time, I consecrate my life to the destruction of slavery!"

In 1842 he was declared bankrupt.

In 1843 four of his kids died of dysntary.

He somehow built up a reputation as an expert in fine sheep and wool and went into business with Col. Simon Perkins. Perkins was the money he was the brains.

In 1846 JB and Perkins moved to Springfield Mass. to sell wool to the factories in the east. They had deals with a huge number of farmers to be their middle men and actually controlled a good portion of Ohios wool. Springfield was chosen because it was an abolitionist city, basically everyone in the town was an abolitionist and the the biggest most popular abolitionist paper was based there.

Their gameplan was to convince the factories to stop selling shitty clothes cheep and en masse to buying their expensive high quality wool and make good products that were more expensive. Nobody bought the wool.

They decided to pack it all up on a ship and sail to England to sell it. Wool was even cheeper in England and nobody bought the wool. The trip and wasted wool cost $40,000 and the firm went bankrupt.

While in Springfield JB joined Free Church and listened to prominent abolishinest speakers such sojourner Truth and Frederick Douglas.

In 1850 he moved to New York state to an area where freed black men were given land grants. He farmed and preached to them and helped teach some to read.

In 1855 he learned from his son in Kansas that pro slavery forces were armed and prepaired to attack and that anti-slavery people were peaceful and unarmed. This did not set well with JB so he headed to Kansas. JB took his time giving speeches in schools and churches all along the way about the dire situation in Kansas and soliciting money for guns. He made a ton of money this way but no one is sure how much.

Background on bleeding Kansas. The Kansas Nebraska act gave a new state the right to choose if they wanted slavery, Nebraska became a state first and choose no, and if Kansas choose no also the balance in Washington between slave and non slave states would tip to non slave majority. So abolitionists encouraged settling there to vote free and southerns came up through Missouri to get to Kansasas well. At this point there were two state Capitols, Topeka (free) and Lecompton (slave) and they both passed their own laws had their own judiciary and ignored the other. They are 20 miles apart both along the banks of the Kansas river and on down the river past lecompton only 15 miles was the second biggest abolitionist city Lawrence. (Kansas City was much bigger but pretty neutral). There would be raids and skirmishes between the three citys, buildings would be burned and there would be wounded people but it was rarely deadly at this point. Big fights not many shots. Pro slavers were called border ruffians and anti slavers were called Jayhawkers (same jay from jay walkers and hawks from war hawks).

In 1856 pro slaver sherif Samuel J Jones led a posses of 800 southerners and a cannon on Lawrence because he was shot in Lawrence while trying to arrest a free stater. The destroyed the presses of abolitionist newspapers and started to collect guns from people. They turned the cannon on Free State Hotel which they claimed was really a fort. 50 cannon balls later it was determined they were right when the Hotel showed little damage so they blew it up with barrels of gunpowder. They captured the future first governor of kansas but eventually let him go. Only one person was killed and it was one of the Raiders. Lawrence would go on to be burned to the ground during the civil war leaving enough room to found a sprawling university in the middle of town Kansas University the Jayhawks.

Brown was outraged by both the violence of the pro-slavery forces, and what he saw as a weak and cowardly response by the antislavery partisans and the Free State settlers, whom he described as "cowards, or worse"

Then his dad died. Then JB decided to start surveillance on the ruffians in his area and learned of their plans to kill him and his family. He was also given a list of names of pro slavers who were plotting to kill him (the paper disappeared and no source nor an inquiry into the source can be found in records, its basically look I had a paper but its gone now and everyone was just fine with that.)

Free State leader Charles Robinson stated, "When it is known that such threats were as plenty as blue-berries in June, on both sides, all over the Territory, and were regarded as of no more importance than the idle wind, this indictment will hardly justify midnight assassination of all pro-slavery men, whether making threats or not… Had all men been killed in Kansas who indulged in such threats, there would have been none left to bury the dead."

Two days after the sack of Lawrence and a week and ahalf after his dad died the Pottawatomie (pot a wat o me) massacre was on. JB and 4 of his sons went around to the houses of men on his list. It was midnight. They would knock on the doors tell the wives and kids they were arresting the man and then march him about 100 yards away. Then his sons would start hacking at them with broad swords. After they laid dead JB shot them to make sure. They killed five that night.

On June 2nd a group of 30 pro slavers attacked the small abolitionist settlement where JB was staying in revenge for the massacre. JB and his men killed seven and captured the rest.

In August, a company of over three hundred Missourians under the command of Major General John W. Reid crossed into Kansas and headed towards Osawatomie (ous a wat o me) , Kansas, intending to destroy the Free State settlements there, and then march on Topeka and Lawrence.

August 30th they spotted JBs son Frederick on the outskirts of Osawatomie and killed him. Hearing the shot JB organized his 38 men to take cover on high ground behind fence posts and trees and shoot their expensive high quality guns bought with the northerners money against the 300 approaching Missourians who were armed with old hunting muskets and revolvers and a cannon. JB and his men killed 20 of them and wounded 40 before they charged. JB and his men fled, one was killed and 5 captured but JB got away because instead of chasing him the soldiers started looting and burning the town.

This made JB front page news across the nation. He was known as Osawatomie Brown and seen as a hero bravely standing up against overwhelming odds in the North and a mad man murderer in the south.

"God sees it. I have only a short time to live – only one death to die, and I will die fighting for his cause. There will be no more peace in this land until slavery is done for. I will give them something else to do than extend slave territory. I will carry this war into Africa.” JB after Osawatomie.

Brown headed back to Lawrence to mount its defense. A group of 2 700 Missourians were encamped on the outskirts of the city. Small skirmishes broke out but JB prepaired for battle. But Governer Geary ordered everyone to stop and offered clemency for past crimes for compliance. The forces disbanded and JB and his sons used the teinous peace to escape back east.

Brown spent two years touring the north as a famous respected man raising funds from wealthy abolishinests and planning to create a state for freed slaves in the south. (Think about that he wants to invade the south and form a state for freed slaves). During this time he met Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson. He again met Fredrick Douglass. He traveled to Canada to visit the end of the underground railroad a town called Catham Ontario. It was a town made up of mostly escaped slaves. Here he called a constitutional convention to adopt a provisional constitution for the state he would form in the south. He also met Hairet Tubman whom he called General Tubman.

A group of 34 blacks and 12 whites all prominent abolishinists ratified the constitution but none of them joined his force including General Tubman. Brown was elected commander-in-chief and he named John Henrie Kagi as his "Secretary of War". Richard Realf was named "Secretary of State". Elder Monroe, a black minister, was to act as president until another was chosen. A.M. Chapman was the acting vice president; Delany, the corresponding secretary. In 1859, "A Declaration of Liberty by the Representatives of the Slave Population of the United States of America" was written.

The seceret six (six wealthy abolitionists who agreed to fund his slave state plan and are called secret because they remained secret during JBs trial but we know now) provided him with more cash and weapons and he headed back to Kansas.

In June 1858 JB forces with James Montgomery, who was leading raids into Missouri. On December 20, Brown led his own raid, in which he liberated eleven slaves, took captive two white men, and looted horses and wagons. On January 20, 1859, he embarked on a lengthy journey to take the eleven liberated slaves to Detroit and then on a ferry to Canada.

Over the course of the next few months, he traveled again through Ohio, New York, Connecticut and Massachusetts to draw up more support for the cause. On May 9, he delivered a lecture in Concord, Massachusetts. In attendance were Bronson Alcott, Emerson and Thoreau. Brown reconnoitered with the Secret Six. In June he paid his last visit to his family in North Elba, before he departed for Harpers Ferry.

As he began recruiting supporters for an attack on slaveholders, Brown was joined by Harriet Tubman, "General Tubman," as he called her. Her knowledge of support networks and resources in the border states of Pennsylvania, Maryland and Delaware was invaluable to Brown and his planners.

Useing General Tubmans spy and communication networks he got word to slaves in the area the plan. The plan was to raid harpers ferry an amoury, seize the guns and distribute them to the slaves in the area. The slaves then would kill their masters and they would march south freeing and arming more slaves as they went. He asked Tubman to gather former slaves then living in present-day Southern Ontario who might be willing to join his fighting force, which she did. Brown arrived in Harpers Ferry on July 3, 1859. A few days later, under the name Isaac Smith, he rented a farmhouse in nearby Maryland. He awaited the arrival of his recruits. They never materialized in the numbers he expected. In late August he met with Douglass in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, where he revealed the Harpers Ferry plan. Douglass expressed severe reservations, rebuffing Brown's pleas to join the mission. Douglass had actually known about Brown's plans from early in 1859 and had made a number of efforts to discourage blacks from enlisting.

Kagi's draft plan called for a brigade of 4,500 men, but Brown had only 21 men (16 white and 5 black: three free blacks, one freed slave, and a fugitive slave). They ranged in age from 21 to 49. Twelve had been with Brown in Kansas raids. On October 16, 1859, Brown (leaving three men behind as a rear guard) led 18 men in an attack on the Harpers Ferry Armory. He had received 200 Beecher's Bibles—breechloading .52 (13.2 mm) caliber Sharps rifles—and pikes from northern abolitionist societies in preparation for the raid. The armory was a large complex of buildings that contained 100,000 muskets and rifles, which Brown planned to seize and use to arm local slaves.

The problem came in the rear gaurd choices, modern sources learned that he chose three of the black men as rear gaurd. This was looked at as a betrayal by the local slaves because they were promptly captured after he seized the armory.

Initially, the raid went well, and they met no resistance entering the town. They cut the telegraph wires and easily captured the armory, which was being defended by a single watchman. They next rounded up hostages from nearby farms, including Colonel Lewis Washington, great-grandnephew of George Washington. They also spread the news to the local slaves that their liberation was at hand. Things started to go wrong when an eastbound Baltimore & Ohio train approached the town. The train's baggage master tried to warn the passengers. Brown's men yelled for him to halt and then opened fire. The baggage master, Hayward Shepherd, became the first casualty of Brown's war against slavery. Ironically, Shepherd was a free black man. Two of the hostages' slaves also died in the raid. For some reason, after the shooting of Shepherd, Brown allowed the train to continue on its way. Another betrayal in the minds of local slaves.

News of the raid reached Baltimore early that morning and then on to Washington by late morning. In the meantime, local farmers, shopkeepers, and militia pinned down the raiders in the armory by firing from the heights behind the town. Some of the local men were shot by Brown's men. At noon, a company of militia seized the bridge, blocking the only escape route. Brown then moved his prisoners and remaining raiders into the engine house, a small brick building at the entrance to the armory. He had the doors and windows barred and loopholes were cut through the brick walls. The surrounding forces barraged the engine house, and the men inside fired back with occasional fury. Brown sent his son Watson and another supporter out under a white flag, but the angry crowd shot them. Intermittent shooting then broke out, and Brown's son Oliver was wounded. His son begged his father to kill him and end his suffering, but Brown said "If you must die, die like a man." A few minutes later, Oliver was dead. The exchanges lasted throughout the day.

By the morning of October 18 the engine house, later known as John Brown's Fort, was surrounded by a company of U.S. Marines under the command of First Lieutenant Israel Greene, USMC, with Colonel Robert E. Lee of the United States Army in overall command.[47] Army First Lieutenant J.E.B. Stuart approached under a white flag and told the raiders that their lives would be spared if they surrendered. Brown refused, saying, "No, I prefer to die here." Stuart then gave a signal. The Marines used sledge hammers and a makeshift battering-ram to break down the engine room door. Lieutenant Israel Greene cornered Brown and struck him several times, wounding his head. In three minutes Brown and the survivors were captives.

The previously reportedly on bord local slaves never materialized due to the seeming betrayals.

Altogether Brown's men killed four people, and wounded nine. Ten of Brown's men were killed (including his sons Watson and Oliver). Five of Brown's men escaped (including his son Owen), and seven were captured along with Brown. Among the raiders killed were John Henry Kagi; Lewis Sheridan Leary and Dangerfield Newby; those hanged besides Brown included John Anthony Copeland, Jr. and Shields Green.

Brown and the others captured were held in the office of the armory. On October 18, 1859, Virginia Governor Henry A. Wise, Virginia Senator James M. Mason, and Representative Clement Vallandigham of Ohio arrived in Harpers Ferry. Mason led the three-hour questioning session of Brown.

had I so interfered in behalf of the rich, the powerful, the intelligent, the so-called great, or in behalf of any of their friends, either father, mother, brother, sister, wife, or children, or any of that class, and suffered and sacrificed what I have in this interference, it would have been all right; and every man in this court would have deemed it an act worthy of reward rather than punishment. This court acknowledges, as I suppose, the validity of the law of God. I see a book kissed here which I suppose to be the Bible, or at least the New Testament. That teaches me that all things whatsoever I would that men should do to me, I should do even so to them. It teaches me, further, to "remember them that are in bonds, as bound with them." I endeavored to act up to that instruction. I say, I am yet too young to understand that God is any respecter of persons. I believe that to have interfered as I have done as I have always freely admitted I have done in behalf of His despised poor, was not wrong, but right. Now, if it is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments, I submit; so let it be done!"

–John Brown, in his speech following the conviction.

The trial began October 27, after a doctor pronounced the still-wounded Brown fit for trial. Brown was charged with murdering four whites and a black, with conspiring with slaves to rebel, and with treason against Virginia. A series of lawyers were assigned to Brown, who included Lawson Botts, Thomas C. Green, Samuel Chilton, a lawyer from Washington D.C., and George Hoyt, but it was Hiram Griswold, a lawyer from Cleveland, Ohio, who concluded the defense on October 31. In his closing statement, Griswold argued that Brown could not be found guilty of treason against a state to which he owed no loyalty and of which he was not a resident, and that Brown had not personally killed anyone himself, and also that the failure of the raid indicated that Brown had not conspired with slaves. Andrew Hunter, the local district attorney, presented the closing arguments for the prosecution.

On November 2, after a week-long trial and 45 minutes of deliberation, the Charles Town jury found Brown guilty on all three counts. Brown was sentenced to be hanged in public on December 2. In response to the sentence, Ralph Waldo Emerson remarked that "[John Brown] will make the gallows glorious like the Cross." Cadets from the Virginia Military Institute under the leadership of General Francis H. Smith and Major Thomas J. Jackson (who would earn the nickname "Stonewall" less than two years later) were called into service as a security detail in the event Brown's supporters attempted a rescue.

During his month in jail, Brown was allowed to send and receive correspondence. One of the letters was from Mahala Doyle, wife and mother of three of Brown's Kansas victims. She wrote "Altho' vengeance is not mine, I confess that I do feel gratified to hear that you were stopped in your fiendish career at Harper's Ferry …" In a postscript she added "My son John Doyle whose life I beg[g]ed of you is now grown up and is very desirous to be in Charlestown on the day of your execution."[50]

Brown refused to be rescued by Silas Soule, a friend from Kansas who had somehow infiltrated the Jefferson County Jail offering to break him out during the night and flee northward. Brown supposedly told Silas that, aged 59, he was too old to live a life on the run from the federal authorities and was ready to die as a martyr. Silas left him behind to be executed. More importantly, many of Brown's letters exuded high tones of spirituality and conviction and, when picked up by the northern press, won increasing numbers of supporters in the North as they simultaneously infuriated many white people in the South. On December 1, his wife arrived by train in Charles Town where she joined him at the county jail for his last meal. She was denied permission to stay for the night, prompting Brown to lose his composure for the only time through the ordeal.

On the morning of December 2, 1859, Brown wrote:

"I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood. I had, as I now think, vainly flattered myself that without very much bloodshed it might be done."

He read his Bible and wrote a final letter to his wife, which included his will. At 11:00 a.m. he was escorted from the county jail through a crowd of 2,000 soldiers a few blocks away to a small field where the gallows were. Among the soldiers in the crowd were future Confederate general Stonewall Jackson and John Wilkes Booth, who borrowed a militia uniform to gain admission to the execution. The poet Walt Whitman, in Year of Meteors, described viewing the execution.

Brown was accompanied by the sheriff and his assistants, but no minister since he had consistently rejected the ministrations of pro-slavery clergy. Since the region was in the grips of virtual hysteria, most northerners, including journalists, were run out of town, and it is unlikely any anti-slavery clergyman would have been safe, even if one were to have sought to visit Brown. He elected to receive no religious services in the jail or at the scaffold. He was hanged at 11:15 am and pronounced dead at 11:50 am. His body was placed in a wooden coffin with the noose still around his neck. His coffin was then put on a train to take it away from Virginia to his family homestead in New York for burial. In the North, large memorial meetings took place, church bells rang, minute guns were fired, and famous writers such as Emerson and Thoreau joined many Northerners in praising Brown.

John Browns body the song was sung by the union throughout the war as a rallying cry. He was viewed as a martyr by the north and a madman by the south. In Kansas, schools, churches, streets and buildings bear his name. In the Kansas state Capitol building a giant mural of him handing guns to blue coats and bibles to grey coats adorns a wall to this day. January 29, 1861 Kansas was admitted to the union as a Free State. Many schools, churches, buildings and companies bear the free state name (Free State Brewing CO being a personal favorite). The University of Kansas was named as the official university for the State of Kansas when Gov. Carney signed the act to begin the university on March 1, 1864. Lawrence continues to be the most liberal city in the state among a sea of red. Places he lived and fought are national historical sites and he is veiwed by Kansas as a founding father. A neighborhood of freed slaves he helped form would later be the site of the Brown V. Board of education suit that ended school segregation. John Brown may have been mad but his heart was in the right place.

Hope you read and consider this story Dave. I like it. The last third or so is mostly copy pasted from Wikipedia cause im sleepy and this really got away from me. If there are any questions leave them in the comments people and I'll try to answer.

TL:DR; John Brown.

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