We know about the Clinton’s pharmaceutical price fixing. How far does it really go? Clinton’s actions in Sub-Saharan Africa were the catalyst that reversed century-old downward trends in disease mortality rates.
- For over a year, the American Ambassador in Kenya requested additional security.
- President Clinton neglected those requests.
- Al Qaeda detonated a bomb that killed 12 Americans and over 200 Kenyans. Among the dead, 2 CIA operators.
- In response, Clinton ordered missile strikes on a pharmaceutical factory in Sudan.
- Clinton claimed the site was being used by Osama bin Laden to manufacture chemical weapons.
- It wasn’t.
- It was just a pharmaceutical factory. This factory supplied around 50% of Sudan’s medicine.
- Malaria mortality rates declined steadily from 1900 all the way through the 1980s. .
- In the 1990s, the mortality rates skyrocketed, rising over 40%. This was caused by medication shortage.
- This medication shortage was caused in large part by direct and indirect actions taken by the Clinton administration to destabilize Africa.
- Not one to let a good crisis go to waste, Clinton sponsored several programs to boost spending to fight these problems.
- These programs are designed to funnel money out of government, into the hands of Clinton cronies.
- Clinton and large pharmaceutical companies are financially connected.
- Clinical trials in third world countries are out of control. Pharmaceutical companies are taking advantage of uninformed populations in order to collect data for pipeline products. This is not the case in every instance, but it is happening, and all major pharmaceutical companies knowingly sponsor such programs.
Ambassador Prudence Bushnell – WIKIPEDIA
Bushnell's time in Washington was marked by extreme tension in Africa.
Black Hawk Down On October 3, 1993, 18 U.S. soldiers were killed and 73 wounded in an attempt to apprehend warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid at the Battle of Mogadishu in Somalia. The American public was appalled at the deaths and support for American involvement in African affairs suffered as a result.
It was against this backdrop that the Rwandan Genocide began. On April 6, 1994, Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana and Cyprien Ntaryamira, the President of Burundi, were both killed when their plane was shot down on approach to Kigali Airport in Rwanda. Responsibility for the assassinations has never been clearly established, however, the resulting chaos was the catalyst for the masacre of Tutsis at the hands of Rwanda's Hutu majority.
She warned them.
- Bushnell, who had been visiting the area just weeks before, released a memorandum immediately following the assassinations.
- In it, she predicted widespread violence and the military take-over of the Rwandan government and urged the U.S. government to take action to maintain order.
- Partly as a result of the Somali incident, the U.S. government chose not to heed Bushnell's recommendations, and on the next day, April 7, the Rwandan Genocide began when several Tutsi government officials and moderate Hutu Prime Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana were killed by Hutu militias.
Ambassador to Kenya
Bushnell remained Deputy Assistant Secretary until being nominated by President Clinton to serve as Ambassador to Kenya in 1996. Upon confirmation by the United States Senate, Bushnell took up residence in Nairobi.
Bushnell used her office to push Kenyan President Daniel arap Moi to institute democratic reforms and to root out corruption in his government, a major drag on Kenya's economy.
She warned them again.
- Bushnell was also alarmed at the vulnerability of the U.S. embassy compound to attack.
For over a year, she complained about security conditions to her superiors in Washington.
Despite Bushnell's request for a new, secure building, a State Department evaluation team concluded that a renovation would suffice.
August 7, 1998 a car bomb was detonated next to the embassy by al-Qaeda agents.
1998 US Embassies in Africa Bombings Fast Facts – CNN
JULY 27, 2015
August 7, 1998 – Almost simultaneously, bombs explode at U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, killing 224 people. More than 5,000 are wounded. Twelve of those killed in Kenya are U.S. citizens.
August 20, 1998 – The U.S. launches cruise missiles at suspected terrorist targets in Afghanistan and Sudan, in retaliation for the embassy bombings.
Africa embassy bombings: attacks that propelled Bin Laden into the limelight – THE GUARDIAN
JAN 20, 2015
- On 20 August 1998, the factory was destroyed in cruise missile strikes launched by the United States military allegedly in retaliation for the truck bombattacks on its embassies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi, Kenya on 7 August. The administrationof President Bill Clinton justified the attacks, dubbed Operation Infinite Reach, on the grounds that the al-Shifa plant was involved with processing the deadly nerve agent VX, and had ties with the Islamist al-Qaeda group of Osama bin Laden,
Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory
The Al-Shifa (الشفاء, Arabic for "healing") pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum North, Sudan, was constructed between 1992 and 1996 with components imported from Germany, India, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand and the United States. It was opened 12 July 1997.
U.S. missiles pound targets in Afghanistan, Sudan – CNN
AUG 20, 1998
Sudanese television showed piles of rubble at the factory and fire raging in the distance. People were seen walking through the damage, wearing masks.
Sudanese officials reacted angrily to the attacks. Interior Minister Abdul Rahim told CNN in a telephone interview that the privately owned pharmaceutical firm had "nothing to do with chemical weapons."
"We have no chemical weapons factory in our country," he said.
A statement read on Sudanese television about an hour after the attack said, "The wrongful American air force launched air attacks on Sudan tonight which aimed at strategic and vital areas." There was no report as to the number of casualties.
"We have no chemical weapons factory in our country.”
Turns out that’s the truth..
The Missiles of August – NEW YORKER
OCT 12, 1998
- “The Sudanese plant, depicted by the White House as a chemical-warfare facility, was one of 2 targets in a retaliatory raid against Saudi terrorist Osama bin Laden, who was linked to the bombings of American Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania earlier that month; Tomahawks were also fired at sites in Afghanistan suspected to be terrorist training camps under the control of bin Laden.”
They bomb pharmacies, don't they? – SALON
SEP 23, 1998
On Aug. 20, President Clinton personally ordered the leveling of the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical plant on the outskirts of Khartoum.
Sources in U.S. Intelligence apparently claimed that there was only one “window” through which to strike at bin Laden, and that the only time they could hope to hit his Afghan fastness by this remote means was on the night of Monica Lewinsky’s return to the grand jury.
Look at the Place! Sudan Says, 'Say Sorry,' but U.S. Won't – NEW YORK TIMES
OCT 20, 2005
Sudan's government wants the Shifa factory preserved just as it was shortly after 13 Tomahawk cruise missiles took it out in the early evening of August 20. The destroyed factory has become a monument of sorts, a place that Sudanese authorities say symbolizes the mistreatment they have suffered at the hands of the world's superpower.
"The government wants it as a showcase," said Eltayeb Hag Ateya, director of the Peace Studies Institute at the University of Khartoum. "It's still a thorn in Sudan-American relations. It will always be a point for the Sudanese government to bring up."
Well then, what was the hurry? A hurry that was panicky enough for the president and his advisors to pick the wrong objective and then, stained with embarrassment and retraction, to refuse the open inquiry that could have settled the question in the first place? There is really only one possible answer to that question. Clinton needed to look “presidential” for a day.
The Observer noted that "The loss of this factory is a tragedy for the rural communities who need these medicines" quoting Tom Carnaffin, technical manager with "intimate knowledge" of the destroyed plant. A month later, Guardian correspondent Patrick Wintour elaborated that the plant "provided 50 percent of Sudan’s medicines, and its destruction has left the country with no supplies of chloroquine, the standard treatment for malaria". (Wintour, Patrick, The Observer, 20 December 1998.)
He continued that, despite this, the British government (who publicly backed the attack) refused requests "to resupply chloroquine in emergency relief until such time as the Sudanese can rebuild their pharmaceutical production". The factory was a principal source of Sudan's anti-malaria and veterinary drugs according to the CBW Conventions Bulletin. THE CBW CONVENTIONS BULLETIN
Coincidentally Malaria Spirals Out of Control
Malaria Surveillance – United States, 1999 – CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL
“The 25.5% increase in malaria cases in 1999, compared with 1998, resulted primarily from increases in cases acquired in Africa and the Americas.”
- “This increase is possibly related to a change in the system by which states report to CDC, but it could also have resulted from local changes in disease transmission, increased travel to these regions, improved reporting to state and local health departments, or a decreased use of effective antimalarial chemoprophylaxis.”
“In the majority of reported cases, U.S. civilians who acquired infection abroad were not on an appropriate chemoprophylaxis regimen for the country where they acquired malaria.”
Public Complain of Malaria Vaccine Shortage – GHANA WEB
NOV 3, 2000
The general public has raised concern and doubt over malaria vaccines, which they said are running short in health centres.
In an interview in health centres, members of the public expressed 'strong interest', calling for 'immediate' explanation from the health department over what they saw as the acute shortage of chloroquine vaccines at a time when malaria is taking a high toll on the population.
Time to act! What can USAID do for you?
United States Agency for International Development USAID's programs are authorized by the Congress in the Foreign Assistance Act, which the Congress supplements through directions in annual funding appropriation acts and other legislation. Although it is technically an independent agency, USAID operates subject to the foreign policy guidance of the President, Secretary of State, and the National Security Council. USAID operates in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe.
Evaluating Malaria Interventions In Africa: A Review and Assessment of Recent Research – USAID
“According to the most recent data, 40% (2,400 million) of the world population in over 90 countries is affected by malaria. In any given year, nearly 10% of the global population will suffer a case of malaria (Malaria International, 1998).”
“There are 300 – 500 million clinical cases of malaria worldwide each year with the majority occurring in sub-Saharan Africa (WHO, 1998).”
“Malaria has been estimated to cause 9% of all disease in Africa (Nchinda, 1998).”
“According to recent data, there are 1.5 – 2.7 million deaths due to malaria each year, the bulk of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa where an estimated 360 million people live in areas of stable, endemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission (Snow et al., 1999a).”
Rolling Back Malaria– WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION – 1999
Almost 300 million clinical cases of malaria occur worldwide each year and over one million people die.
Almost 90% of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where young children are the most affected.
Malaria is directly responsible for one in five childhood deaths in Africa and indirectly contributes to illness and deaths from respiratory infections, diarrheal disease and malnutrition.
The author then uses good information in a manner that is very misleading.
- “Chloroquine, perhaps the best ever antimalarial drug, and certainly the most widely used, is now failing against falciparum malaria in most areas of the tropical world.”
- “In some areas, such as parts of South-East Asia and South America, chloroquine is now completely ineffective against P. falciparum malaria.”
True, but we’re talking about Africa. That’s where the problem is.
- “In many parts of India and Africa, its effectiveness is falling rapidly.”
True, but still misleading. Per the National Center for Biotechnology (NCBI), “despite declining use, CQ remained the first-line therapy for uncomplicated P.f. malaria in the majority of sub-Saharan countries until after 2000.” – US NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE
“For the treatment of falciparum malaria, the usual successor to chloroquine is a combination of pyrimethamine and a long acting sulphonamide (SP), which is also affordable and well tolerated. Five countries in Africa (Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa and Swaziland) have now been forced to switch from chloroquine to SP as the first line antimalarial treatment.”
“Unfortunately, in several of the areas where it has been deployed, notably South-East Asia and South America, P. falciparum has become widely SP-resistant.”
I thought we were talking about sub-Saharan Africa.
The truth is, the resurgence of malaria is in large part, the result of Bill Clinton’s destabilization of Africa. (Ok Bush too, but we will discuss that later)
WHO backs controversial chemical for malaria control – SCI DEV NET
SEP 18, 2006
The controversial insecticide DDT — which most nations have banned — is back on the menu for malaria control after the World Health Organization reversed a 30-year old policy on Friday (15 September).
The move puts annual indoor spraying of DDT alongside drugs and bednets as one of the three main tools for controlling the disease.
"The scientific and programmatic evidence clearly supports this reassessment," said Anarfi Asamoa-Baah, assistant director-general for HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria at the World Health Organization (WHO).
"[Indoor spraying] has proven to be just as cost-effective as other malaria prevention methods, and DDT presents no health risk when used properly."
The chemical kills the mosquitoes that spread malaria. It helped eradicate the disease from southern Europe and North America in the 1960s.
DDT is also toxic to birds, fish and mammals. It accumulates in the food chain and remains in the environment for many years. In the 1970s, growing awareness of these threats led many countries to ban its use in agriculture.
Malaria linked to catastrophic spread of AIDS in Africa – SCI DEV NET
DEC 8, 2006
Research in Kenya indicates that the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS across Africa could be linked to malaria.
The work has important implications for public health policies in sub-Saharan Africa, highlighting the need to tackle both diseases together.
There is considerable geographical overlap between HIV/AIDS — which infects over 40 million people in Africa — and malaria, which causes 500 million clinical infections each year.
People with both malaria and HIV/AIDS are more likely to transmit the HIV virus, according to the study published in the journal Science today (8 December). This may have promoted the rapid spread of the disease in sub-Saharan Africa.
"We have always known the relationship between [malaria and HIV/AIDS], but we did not know the impact it had on the spread: now we have a reference point," says Ayub Manya, an epidemiologist with the Kenyan National Malaria Control Programme.
World Bank head praises DDT use against malaria – SCI DEV NET
MAR 19, 2007
– World Bank president Paul Wolfowitz has praised South Africa's malaria control programme, saying the country's use of indoor residual spraying has reduced malaria episodes.
– Wolfowitz says he will consider taking South Africa's approach to other malaria-affected countries. He committed around US$48 million for malaria control in 14 African countries, which could increase, depending on success.
’The Malaria Vaccine Funders Group’
The Malaria Vaccine Funders Group – having a joint vision for a major contribution to a world free from malaria morbidity and mortality through vaccination – has its origins in discussions among representatives from the World Health Organization (WHO), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the European Commission (EC) and the European Vaccine Initiative (EVI)
- The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF)
- The European Commission (EC)
- The European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP)
- The European Vaccine Initiative (EVI)
- The PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI)
- The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Extramural Malaria Program
- The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Malaria Vaccine Development Program (MVDP)
- The Wellcome Trust
- The World Health Organization (WHO) Initiative for Vaccine Research (IVR)
This is not limited to Malaria or Clinton.
The President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR/Emergency Plan) is a United States governmental initiative to address the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and help save the lives of those suffering from the disease, primarily in Africa.
- Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator (OGAC)
- U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
- Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
- Department of Defense (DoD)
- Department of Commerce (DoC)
- Department of Labor (DoL)
- Peace Corps
The program has provided antiretroviral treatment (ART) to over 7.7 million HIV-infected people in resource-limited settings and supported HIV testing and counseling (HTC) for more than 56.7 million people as of 2014. PEPFAR increased the number of Africans receiving ART from 50,000 at the start of the initiative in 2004. PEPFAR has been called the largest health initiative ever initiated by one country to address a disease. The budget presented for the fiscal year 2016 included a request for $1.11 billion for PEPFAR as well as contributions from global organizations such as UNAIDS and private donors.
Abdullahi v. Pfizer, Inc. – Pfizer testing on African Children in 2007 – BBC NEWS
- In 1996, an outbreak of measles, cholera, and bacterial meningitis occurred in Nigeria. Pfizer representatives traveled to Kano, Nigeria to administer an experimental antibiotic, trovafloxacin, to approximately 200 children. Local Kano officials report that more than 50 children died in the experiment, while many others developed mental and physical deformities.
Unethical Clinical Trials Still Being Conducted in Developing Countries – HUFFINGTON POST
OCT 3, 2014
- In 1997, Public Citizen’s Health Research Group brought widespread international attention to unethical clinical trials.
- The trials were testing new methods for preventing the spread of HIV infection from pregnant women to their babies before or after giving birth in developing countries in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean.
- In each of these trials, most of which were funded by the U.S. government, some women were randomly assigned to receive placebos or other treatments known to be ineffective, rather than a drug proven effective in preventing the spread of HIV infection from mother to baby.
Malaria drug causes brain damage that mimics PTSD: case study – MILITARY TIMES
AUG 11, 2016
- The case of a service member diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder but found instead to have brain damage caused by a malaria drug raises questions about the origin of similar symptoms in other post-9/11 veterans.
- According to the case study published online in Drug Safety Case Reports in June, a U.S. military member sought treatment at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, for uncontrolled anger, insomnia, nightmares and memory loss.
The fix is in
Leaked Podesta email discussing price fixing AIDS drugs for their benefit. – WIKILEAKS
RE: Domestic AIDS Memo
DEC 12, 2011
- “We were taken by surprise by President Clinton’s comments on world AIDS day and wish that someone had consulted with us before he made these comments.” …
- …” We have always told the drug companies that we would not pressure them and create a slippery slope where prices they negotiate with us for poor countries would inevitably lead to similar prices in rich countries.” …
- … “We would have to initiate discussions with multiple state health officials as well as HHS in addition to talking with the drug companies.” …
- … “Whatever we decide, we need to make a decision quickly and President Clinton and CHAI need to be in synch. I do not think it is a good idea for President Clinton to be taking one position and CHAI another.” …
Is the Clinton Foundation Responsible for the High Price of AIDS Drugs in the US? – HUFFINGTON POST
DEC 30, 2016
- “If you really had to think long and hard about it, the ultimate result of years of negotiations by the Clinton Foundation was that the price of AIDS drugs ended up being high in the US.”
- “Furthermore, African governments were paranoid that drug companies were a part of a massive conspiracy suppressing their countries.”
Clinton Foundation AIDS Program Distributed ‘Watered-Down’ Drugs to Third World Countries – DAILY CALLER
SEP 19, 2016
- Former President Bill Clinton and his Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI) distributed “watered-down” HIV/AIDs drugs to patients in sub-Saharan Africa, and “likely increased” the risks of morbidity and mortality.
- The CHAI program to help AIDS victims is considered one of the Clinton Foundation’s most important contributions and is probably its best known initiative.
- Ranbaxy ultimately pleaded guilty in 2013 to seven criminal counts with intent to defraud and the introduction of adulterated drugs into interstate commerce.
- The Department of Justice further levied a $500 million fine and forfeiture on the company.
Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc. donated $100,001 – $250,000 to the Clinton Foundation.
Clinton Foundation Advised World Bank on Contracts That Netted Donors Millions – FREE BEACON
AUG 16, 2016
- Two of every three dollars spent acquiring anti-tuberculosis drugs through the program, which is administered by the World Bank, have gone to two companies—Swiss health care giant Novartis and Indian drug company Lupin Ltd.—that together have donated up to $130,000 to the Clinton Foundation.
- The project, dubbed the Second National Tuberculosis Control Project (SNTCP), is financed by the World Bank’s International Development Association, which receives the bulk of its funding from the United States, Britain, Japan, and Germany.
- Clinton has pointed to her foundation’s work in promoting access to pharmaceuticals in the developing world as an example of its laudatory humanitarian mission.
- However, critics have noted how beneficiaries of other foundation-backed pharmaceutical access programs have made large financial contributions to the group. Companies that received funds from the foundation to provide low-cost HIV drugs, for instance, were donors to the foundation.
BLACKBURN RELEASES CLINTON FOUNDATION REPORT – CONGRESSMAN MARSHA BLACKBURN
SEP 20, 2016
- The Clinton Foundation Likely Facilitated The Distribution of Watered Down HIV/AIDS Medications In sub-Saharan Africa Through Its Health Access Initiative.
- The Distribution of Watered Down HIV/AIDS Medications In sub-Saharan Africa May Have Increased Patient Mortality Rates.
- Watered Down HIV/AIDS ARVs Were Purchased With Taxpayer Money Through PEPFAR As A Result of Price Agreements, Some of Which Were Likely Negotiated By The Clinton Foundation.
- President Clinton Was Personally Enriched With Million Dollar Consulting Contracts By A Friend of Convicted Felon, and Ranbaxy advocate, Rajat Gupta From 2002-2008.
Lobbyists for Clinton’s ‘Enemies’ Are Bankrolling Her Campaign – FREE BEACON
OCT 14, 2015
- Asked to name the enemies that she is most proud of during Tuesday’s Democratic presidential debate, Hillary Clinton cited industries represented by lobbyists who are among her top campaign fundraisers.
- In addition to Iran and the Republican Party, Clinton said she was proud to count “the health insurance companies” and “the drug companies” as her enemies.
- Those industries’ lobbyists do not appear to share that enmity. By mid-July, seven of them had raised hundreds of thousands of dollars for her presidential campaign, according to campaign finance records.
- They include Heather and Tony Podesta, the recently divorced Democratic power brokers. Heather Podesta represents health insurer Cigna, while Tony lobbies on behalf of pharmaceutical firms Amgen and EMD Serono, a division of drug giant Merck.
- The Podestas have also given as much as $150,000 to the Clinton Foundation, according to that group’s list of donors.
- Insurers Humana and Blue Cross Blue Shield of North Carolina and drug company Pfizer have donated between $1 million and $5 million. Merck has given $250,000 to $500,000; AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson have donated $100,000 to $250,000.
- One of the speakers at this year’s annual Clinton Global Initiative summit was Merck chairman and chief executive Kenneth Frazier, a PhRMA board member. Last year, CGI hosted the president of health care consulting firm Rabin Martin, which represents a number of drug companies. The year before, it announced financial commitments from Pfizer, one of multiple such charitable commitments that drug company has made through the Clinton Foundation.
Bombing of Iraq (1998) – WIKIPEDIA)
- The December 1998 bombing of Iraq (code-named Operation Desert Fox) was a major four-day bombing campaign on Iraqi targets from December 16, 1998, to December 19, 1998, by the United States and United Kingdom.
- The contemporaneous justification for the strikes was Iraq's failure to comply with United Nations Security Council resolutions and its interference with United Nations Special Commission inspectors.
Facilities not known to be producing WMD – WASHINGTON POST
- Former U.S. Army intelligence analyst William Arkin contended in his Washington Post column January, 1999 that the operation had less to do with WMD and more to do with destabilizing the Iraqi government.
- It is clear from the target list, and from extensive communications with almost a dozen officers and analysts knowledgeable about Desert Fox planning, that the U.S.-British bombing campaign was more than a reflexive reaction to Saddam Hussein's refusal to cooperate with UNSCOM's inspectors.
- The official rationale for Desert Fox may remain the "degrading" of Iraq's ability to produce weapons of mass destruction and the "diminishing" of the Iraqi threat to its neighbours. But careful study of the target list tells another story.
- Thirty-five of the 100 targets were selected because of their role in Iraq's air defense system, an essential first step in any air war, because damage to those sites paves the way for other forces and minimizes casualties all around. Only 13 targets on the list are facilities associated with chemical and biological weapons or ballistic missiles, and three are southern Republican Guard bases that might be involved in a repeat invasion of Kuwait.
Bill Clinton bombed Saddam to distract from the Monica Lewinsky scandal – what Huma Abedin's Muslim journal claimed about her boss's husband – DAILY MAIL
AUG 26, 2016
- Huma Abedin, Clinton's right-hand woman, was for 12 years the assistant editor of the Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs.
- In 2002 the supposedly academic journal published claims by a Canadian law student about the 1998 bombing Bill Clinton ordered in Iraq.
- Sina Ali Musati claimed he did it as a distraction from the Monica Lewinsky scandal – which was then at its height.
- Clinton campaign claims Abedin was not involved in actually editing the magazine saying she was 'just on the masthead'.
- But did not explain how that squared with her being on the editorial board.
- Her mother is editor-in-chief and suggested U.S. was responsible for 9/11 while another article said Jews were 'adept' at influencing politics.
- The article was written by Sina Ali Muscati who was the time described as a 'second year law student' at the University of Ottawa. His academic credentials were not declared.
- Muscati wrote about the 1991 conflict and its aftermath, which saw Saddam Hussein remain in power throughout the 1990s, despite being bombed twice – in 1996 and in December 1998.
- 'The crisis with Iraq has also probably benefited Clinton, serving as a good deterrent of attention from personal crises, such as his campaign funding scandals, legislative failures, or the Monica Lewinsky affair,' he said.
- 'By occasionally bombing Iraq in the name of humanity, at least, he has been able to look strong and presidential.'
- Clinton's bombing of Iraq in December 1998 was widely mocked as 'Monica's war'.
- He ordered four days of strikes by bombers and cruise missiles at the height of his impeachment trial, brought in the wake of his admission that he had had a 'not appropriate' relationship with Monica Lewinsky.